The protection of minorities in Islam
The spread of Islam in the West, both in Europe and in the US, seems to be advancing at an increasing speed. There are already nine million Muslims settled in Western Europe and the Islamic community in America has no less than six million members. In the Federal Republic of Germany alone, 2,578 Islamic centers and places of worship were counted at the beginning of this year.
And there are still alarmist voices warning of a possible backlash as anti-Turkish and anti-Arab sentiments are surfacing everywhere. The main reason for this dangerous development is an emotional fear of Islam, widespread not only in the Balkans and Mediterranean European countries but also in Northern and Central Europe. Islam is not viewed as expounded by Muslims—as the most respectful of religions—but rather as a militant, aggressive, highly intolerant, and inherently violent religion.
As a result, although it may seem a long way off, Europeans are increasingly concerned that their Muslim populations—because of their demographics, additional emigration, and dawah activities—might be culturally dominant. This idea is especially threatening to many because it is assumed that Muslims, once in power, will suppress Christians and other minorities.
In response to this, a militant and restive evangelical anti-Islamic group, the so-called Christliche Mitte (Christian Center), has begun dropping leaflets calling on people to speak out “against an Islamization of Germany.”
For the future of Islam in Europe it is essential to inform people about the correct attitude of Islam in general, and Islamic jurisprudence in particular, towards religious minorities.
Is Islam intolerant?
Discussions about whether or not Islam is tolerant by nature derive from the interpretation of the well-known ayat of sura Al Imran: “Inna ad-din ´and Allah al-Islam”. If this passage is interpreted like this: “The only true religion in the eyes of Allah is Islam”, meaning the Islamic religion and civilization as they have developed historically, then this ayat can be seen as triumphalist, exclusivist, and potentially as a dangerous doctrine. Fortunately, this opinion can only be based on a few contemporary translations of the Qur’an into English.
To counteract this impact, non-Muslims must be informed of the fact that the current interpretation of surah 3, ayat 19 is almost unanimous among Qur’anic scholars that it is to be understood in the way it was to be understood before the establishment of Islam as a specific lifestyle, that is, as ‘submission to God’ or ‘acceptance of His Will’, so that Al-Imran actually says: “The only [true] religion before God is [man’s] submission to Him.”.
The same problem arises when al-Islam is naively left untranslated in ayat 85 of Al-Imran instead of interpreting it as
“For whoever seeks a religion that is not submission to God, it will not be accepted.” (Quran, 3:85)
tolerance in Islam
European religious history is conditioned by the early Christian doctrine “extra ecclesiam nullum salus” according to which non-Christians could not access salvation. Therefore, the history of the West is marked by structural intolerance.
In fact, wherever they could, Christians physically eliminated people who did not subscribe to their doctrine. Not only the Germanic and Slavic pagan tribes were massacred. After the Reconquest in Spain, ethnic-religious cleansing was carried out against the Muslims and Jews of Al-Andalus as effectively as it is now done against the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Christian religious intolerance was also directed against heretical co-religionists, whether they were the Orthodox Church or the Protestants. Especially harmful were the effects of the mutually agreed doctrine of that forced many peoples to accept the denomination of their respective monarchs, as they came. This implied a degree of intolerance that deprived Europeans of experiencing religious pluralism as it was practiced in Muslim lands—Andalusia, Sicily, the Balkans, and the Near East—which still makes Europeans naturally assume that Muslims are going to respond reciprocally.
Little thought has been given to what should be seen as an astonishing fact: that the Greeks and Serbs, after five hundred years of Ottoman rule, remained with their traditional religion and language intact.
Westerners are also not surprised when they see more Coptic churches than mosques on their way from the airport to Cairo’s city center. Nor are they surprised when they see new crosses on church steeples in Damascus or Catholic, Armenian, Protestant, or Orthodox churches operating in Istanbul, in addition to the dozens of synagogues.
It is therefore essential to make Westerners see that the Koran is a true manifesto of religious pluralism to the point that Islam is characterized, in theory, and in practice, by what we could call ‘structural tolerance’.
Religious pluralism in Islam is based on several verses from the Qur’an, including the following:
“To each of you We have assigned a [different] law and way of life. And if God had wanted, certainly, he would have made you one community: but he [he arranged it so] to test you in what he has given you. Compete, then, with one another in doing good works. You will all have to return to God: and, then, He will make you understand what you disagreed about.” (Quran: 5, 48)
“And among His wonders is… the diversity of your languages and colors.”
“There is no coercion in matters of faith.”
“For you your adoration and for me mine.”
(Quran: 109, 6)
“We have assigned to each community [different] forms of worship, which they should observe. Therefore, [O believer] do not allow those [who follow ways different from yours] to drag you into disputing on this issue, but call your Sustainer…”
(Quran: 22, 67)
And if [they try] to argue with you, say [simply]: God knows what you do.
(Quran: 22, 68)
“And say: ‘The truth [has now come] from your Sustainer: so whoever will, let him believe, and whoever will, let him reject it.”
(Quran: 18, 29)
“Men! We have created you from a male and a female and we have made you different peoples and tribes so that you may recognize one another. And verily the most noble of you before Allah is the one who is most conscious of Him.”
(Quran: 49, 13)
US and China Relationship: A Tale of Rivalry, Cooperation, and Complexity
The relationship between the United States and China is one of the most important bilateral relationships in the world today. As two of the largest and most powerful countries, the US and China have a deep and complex history of engagement, from the early days of trade and diplomatic relations to the current era of economic and strategic competition. Over the years, the two countries have worked together on a number of issues, such as climate change and North Korea, but they have also clashed on many others, including trade, human rights, and territorial disputes in the South China Sea. This article will examine the evolution of US-China relations, the current state of the relationship, and the challenges and opportunities for the future.
The relationship between the US and China goes back more than 200 years when American merchants began trading with Chinese merchants in the 18th century. In the mid-19th century, the US became one of the many countries to take advantage of China’s weakened state to secure trade and territorial concessions. In the early 20th century, the US supported Sun Yat-sen’s revolution and recognized the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China. However, after the Communist Party took control of China in 1949, the US became increasingly hostile toward the new regime, seeing it as a threat to US interests and values.
During the Cold War, the US and China were on opposite sides, with China aligned with the Soviet Union. However, after the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s, the US saw an opportunity to improve relations with China and exploit the division between the two communist powers. In 1971, President Richard Nixon made a historic visit to China, and the two countries established diplomatic relations the following year. The US saw China as a potential counterbalance to the Soviet Union, and the two countries worked together on a number of issues, such as trade and arms control.
In the decades that followed, the US-China relationship grew increasingly complex, as China became a major economic power and a potential military rival. The US continued to engage with China, but it also became more critical of China’s human rights record, its trade practices, and its territorial ambitions. The relationship was tested in 1999, when the US bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo War, leading to a serious diplomatic crisis.
Current State of the Relationship
Today, the US-China relationship is at a critical juncture, as the two countries navigate a number of challenges and opportunities. On the one hand, the two countries continue to cooperate on a range of issues, such as climate change and the global economy. For example, the US and China worked together to secure the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2015, and they have both committed to achieving net-zero emissions by mid-century. The US and China are also major trading partners, with total trade between the two countries reaching $559 billion in 2020.
On the other hand, the US and China are also engaged in fierce economic and strategic competition, with each country seeking to secure its own interests and influence. The US has accused China of engaging in unfair trade practices, stealing intellectual property, and using its state-owned enterprises to gain an unfair advantage in the global economy. The US has also been critical of China’s human rights record, particularly with respect to the treatment of Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang and the crackdown on democracy activists in Hong Kong.
“The Climate Crisis: Understanding the Global Impact of Climate Change”
Climate change becomes a pressing issue facing the world today. It is caused by a variety of factors, including human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture. The effects of climate change are widespread and have already been observed in many parts of the world. In this article, we will explore the various ways in which climate change is affecting the world.
One of the most noticeable effects of climate change is rising temperatures. The Earth’s average temperature has already increased by 1.1°C since pre-industrial times, and it is expected to continue to rise unless action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This increase in temperature has a number of effects on the planet, including melting glaciers and sea ice, which contribute to rising sea levels.
Rising Sea Levels
Sea levels are rising due to the melting of glaciers and sea ice, as well as the thermal expansion of ocean water caused by the warming of the planet. This is having a significant impact on coastal communities, particularly those in low-lying areas. As sea levels rise, the risk of flooding and storm surges increases, which can lead to property damage, loss of life, and displacement of communities.
Extreme Weather Events
Increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. This includes heatwaves, droughts, wildfires, hurricanes, and floods. These events can cause widespread damage and have significant economic and social impacts. For example, the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was one of the most active on record, with Hurricane Harvey causing an estimated $125 billion in damage in the United States.
Impact on Ecosystems
Climate change is also having a significant impact on ecosystems around the world. As temperatures rise, many plant and animal species are struggling to adapt. This is particularly true for species that are already on the brink of extinction. Changes in precipitation patterns and the frequency of extreme weather events are also impacting ecosystems, leading to changes in vegetation and animal populations.
Impact on Human Health
Rising temperatures can lead to heat stress, which can be particularly dangerous for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with pre-existing health conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns can also lead to an increase in the prevalence of waterborne diseases such as cholera, while the increase in wildfires can lead to a rise in respiratory illnesses.
Impact on Agriculture
Climate change is also having a significant impact on agriculture. Changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and extreme weather events are all affecting crop yields and the availability of water for irrigation. This is particularly problematic in regions that are already vulnerable to food insecurity, where climate change can exacerbate existing issues.
Impact on Water Resources
Climate change is also affecting water resources around the world. As temperatures rise, the demand for water for irrigation, domestic use, and industry is increasing, while the availability of water is decreasing. This is particularly true in regions that are already vulnerable to water scarcity, such as parts of Africa and the Middle East.
Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change
The effects of climate change are already being felt around the world, but there are actions that can be taken to mitigate these effects. The most important step is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which can be done by transitioning to renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power, as well as by reducing energy consumption through energy efficiency measures.
In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, there are also adaptation measures that can be taken to help communities and ecosystems adapt to the changing climate. This includes measures such as building sea walls to protect against rising sea levels, implementing drought-resistant agriculture, and increasing access to water in water-scarce regions.
In conclusion, the effects of climate change are widespread and already being felt around the world. Rising temperatures, rising sea levels, extreme weather events, impact on ecosystems, human health, agriculture, and water resources are just some of the ways in which climate change is affecting the planet. However, by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and implementing adaptation measures, it is possible to mitigate the effects of climate change and build a more sustainable future. It is crucial that individuals, communities, and governments take action to address this global challenge and work towards a more resilient and sustainable world for future generations. The time to act is now, and every effort counts towards ensuring a better future for all.
5G Technology: The Future of Communication
As technology evolves, so does our need for faster and more reliable communication. The fifth generation of mobile networks, or 5G, promises to deliver just that. 5G is the next big thing in wireless communication, offering ultra-fast speeds, low latency, and greater capacity than its predecessors. With its potential to revolutionize industries ranging from healthcare to transportation, 5G is one of the most highly anticipated technological advancements of our time.
What is 5G Technology?
5G technology is the fifth generation of mobile networks, succeeding the current 4G/LTE networks. It is designed to deliver faster download and upload speeds, lower latency, and improved connectivity. With 5G technology, data can be transmitted more efficiently, enabling a more robust and reliable network that can support a greater number of devices and applications.
5G uses three different frequency bands: low-band, mid-band, and high-band. Low-band frequencies provide wide coverage but lower speeds, while high-band frequencies provide ultra-fast speeds but limited coverage. Mid-band frequencies strike a balance between coverage and speed, making it the most ideal frequency for 5G.
When Will 5G be Launched Worldwide?
5G has already been launched in several countries, including the United States, China, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. However, the launch of 5G has been slower in some other parts of the world, and it may take a few more years before the technology becomes widely available.
One of the main challenges of implementing 5G is the need for more infrastructure, including more towers and base stations, as well as the installation of fiber optic cables. This requires a significant investment of time and resources, and not all countries are at the same level of readiness for 5G deployment.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also impacted the rollout of 5G, with many countries diverting their resources to the fight against the virus. However, despite the challenges, many experts predict that 5G will become widely available worldwide by 2025.
The Benefits of 5G Technology
5G technology has the potential to transform many industries, including healthcare, transportation, and entertainment. Here are some of the benefits of 5G technology:
Faster speeds: 5G networks can offer download and upload speeds that are up to 100 times faster than current 4G networks, making it possible to download and stream high-quality content in seconds.
Low latency: 5G networks can reduce latency to just a few milliseconds, enabling real-time interactions between devices and applications. This can have a significant impact on industries such as gaming, virtual reality, and self-driving cars.
Greater capacity: 5G networks can support a greater number of devices and applications, making it possible for more people to connect to the network at the same time.
Improved reliability: 5G networks are more resilient to interference and can provide a more reliable connection, even in areas with a high concentration of devices.
Enhanced security: 5G networks are designed with improved security features, making it more difficult for hackers to intercept and steal data.
5G technology is the future of communication, offering faster speeds, lower latency, and greater capacity than current networks. While the rollout of 5G has been slow in some parts of the world, many experts predict that it will become widely available by 2025. With the potential to transform many industries, 5G is one of the most exciting technological advancements of our time.
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