misinformation nonenglish wikipedia englishsatoslate Wikipedia doesn’t exactly enjoy a reputation as the most reliable source on the internet. But a report released in June by the Wikimedia Foundation, which operates Wikipedia, suggests that the digital encyclopedia’s misinformation woes may run even deeper than many of its English-speaking users realize.
In the report’s summary, the foundation acknowledged that a small network of volunteer administrators of the Croatian-language version of Wikipedia have been abusing their powers and distorting articles “in a way that matched the narratives of political organizations and groups that can broadly be defined as the Croatian radical right.” For almost a decade, the rogue administrators have been altering pages to whitewash crimes committed by Croatia’s Nazi-allied Ustashe regime during World War II and to promote a fascist worldview. For example, it was reported in 2018 that Auschwitz—which English Wikipedia unambiguously deems a concentration camp—was referred to on Croatian Wikipedia as a collection camp, a term that carries fewer negative connotations. The Jasenovac concentration camp, known as Croatia’s Auschwitz, was also referred to as a collection camp.
Croatian Wikipedia users have been calling attention to similar discrepancies since at least 2013, but the Wikimedia Foundation began taking action only last year. That the disinformation campaign went unchecked for so long speaks to a fundamental weakness of Wikipedia’s crowdsourced approach to quality control: It works only if the crowd is large, diverse, and independent enough to reliably weed out assertions that run counter to fact.
By and large, the English version of Wikipedia meets these criteria. As of August 2021, it has more than 120,000 editors who, thanks to the language’s status as a lingua franca, come from a diversity of geographic and cultural backgrounds. English Wikipedia is considered by many researchers to be almost, but still not quite as accurate as traditional encyclopedias. But Wikipedia exists in more than 300 languages, half of which have fewer than 10 active contributors. These non-English versions of Wikipedia can be especially vulnerable to manipulation by ideologically motivated networks.
I saw this for myself earlier this year, when I investigated disinformation on the Japanese edition of Wikipedia. Although the Japanese edition is second in popularity only to the English Wikipedia, it receives fewer than one-sixth as many page views and is run by only a few dozen administrators. (The English-language site has nearly 1,100 administrators.) I discovered that on the Japanese Wikipedia, similar to the Croatian version, politically motivated users were abusing their power and whitewashing war crimes committed by the Japanese military during World War II
The International Cricket Council (ICC): A Comprehensive Overview
The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the apex governing body for the sport of cricket globally. Established to ensure the proper administration and development of cricket, the ICC plays a vital role in shaping the game, promoting international competitions, and fostering cooperation among cricketing nations. In this in-depth exploration of the ICC, we will delve into its history, structure, functions, key tournaments, and its efforts to grow and promote cricket worldwide.
I. The Origins of the International Cricket Council
The ICC’s history dates back to the early 20th century when cricket was played predominantly between England and Australia. The need for a governing body to oversee international matches became apparent as the sport gained popularity in other nations.
II. Foundation and Early Years
The Imperial Cricket Conference (ICC’s original name) was founded in 1909 with England, Australia, and South Africa as its founding members. Initially, the ICC primarily focused on scheduling and organizing Test matches between these countries.
III. Expansion and Renaming
In 1965, the organization expanded its membership, including more cricketing nations, and was subsequently renamed the International Cricket Conference. This expansion marked a significant step towards the globalization of cricket.
IV. The Formation of the International Cricket Council (ICC)
In 1989, the ICC was formally established as the sport’s governing body to oversee all international cricket, with a mandate that extended beyond Test matches to include One Day Internationals (ODIs) and other formats.
V. Structure and Governance of the ICC
The ICC operates under a structured framework that includes a council, committees, and member boards. Understanding its governance is essential to comprehending how decisions are made in international cricket.
VI. ICC Councils and Committees
The ICC is comprised of various councils and committees responsible for specific aspects of the game. These include the Executive Board, the Chief Executives’ Committee, and various cricket-specific committees.
VII. The Role of Member Boards
Member boards from cricket-playing nations play a crucial role in the ICC’s decision-making process. They represent their respective countries and are vital in shaping the future of the sport.
VIII. ICC’s Regulatory and Development Functions
The ICC’s responsibilities extend to both regulating the game and promoting its growth. This dual role requires a multifaceted approach to ensure cricket thrives worldwide.
IX. Promoting and Developing Cricket Globally
One of the ICC’s primary objectives is to expand the reach of cricket beyond traditional strongholds. Initiatives to promote cricket in non-traditional markets and developing cricketing infrastructure are central to this mission.
X. Key ICC Tournaments
The ICC organizes and sanctions numerous international tournaments, some of which are the most prestigious in the world of cricket. These tournaments capture the hearts of fans and showcase the best talent in the game.
1. ICC Cricket World Cup
The Cricket World Cup is the pinnacle of One Day International cricket, attracting global attention every four years. It features the world’s top teams competing for the coveted trophy.
2. ICC T20 World Cup
The T20 World Cup, introduced in 2007, has become a marquee event in the cricketing calendar. The fast-paced and dynamic T20 format has garnered a massive following.
3. ICC Champions Trophy
The Champions Trophy is another prestigious ODI tournament that brings together top cricketing nations in a competitive and limited-overs format.
4. ICC Women’s Cricket World Cup
The ICC also promotes women’s cricket through the Women’s Cricket World Cup, showcasing the talents of female cricketers on the global stage.
XI. The Impact of Technology on Cricket
The ICC has embraced technological advancements to enhance the accuracy of decision-making during matches. The Decision Review System (DRS) and Hawk-Eye technology are prime examples.
XII. Challenges and Controversies
Like any international sports body, the ICC has faced challenges and controversies, including issues related to governance, match-fixing, and disputes among member boards.
XIII. ICC’s Role in Cricket Diplomacy
Cricket has often been used as a diplomatic tool, and the ICC plays a role in facilitating cricketing ties between nations, sometimes in the midst of political tensions.
XIV. Future Initiatives and Expanding Horizons
The ICC continually seeks ways to innovate and grow the sport, exploring new markets, formats, and promotional strategies.
The International Cricket Council stands as the custodian of the world’s second-most popular sport, with a mandate to govern, promote, and develop cricket across the globe. Its journey from humble beginnings to a global powerhouse reflects the enduring popularity and impact of cricket. As the sport continues to evolve, the ICC remains at the forefront, ensuring cricket’s future is as vibrant as its storied past.
Citizen-Run Media: Empowering Voices for a New Era of Journalism
Citizen-Run Media:Empowering Voices for a New Era of Journalism has become a strong and important force in a society where mainstream media predominates. This 2000 word essay analyzes the interesting world of citizen-run media, looking at its history, significance, difficulties, and potential. You’ll have a thorough knowledge of how regular people are changing the media environment after this adventure is over.
Citizens’ media, sometimes known as “grassroots media,” has become quite popular in recent years. It symbolizes a departure from conventional journalism by giving everyday people control over the broadcast of information.
The Birth of Citizen-Run Media
The idea of citizen journalism is not wholly new. It has its roots in the early days of the internet, when online forums and blogs were used as venues for people to express their opinions. However, the social media revolution was when citizen-run media really took off.
The Power of Social Media
People now have an unmatched chance to share news, ideas, and stories with a worldwide audience thanks to social media sites like Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. Citizen journalists have emerged as a result of the democratization of information, reporting on current events from their particular viewpoints.
The Impact of Citizen-Run Media
Breaking News Faster
News stories are frequently reported faster by citizen-run media than by established channels. Information travels quickly because eyewitnesses record occurrences on their smartphones and post them online. Because of this, we now absorb news in a different way that is more instantaneous and unedited.
The variety of viewpoints offered by citizen-run media is one of its most important benefits. Citizen journalists come from a variety of experiences and opinions, offering a larger and more inclusive vision of the world whereas traditional media may have biases or restrictions.
Holding the Powerful Accountable
Holding governments and organizations responsible has mostly been made possible by citizen-run media. Now that activists and whistleblowers may expose corruption and injustice without relying on conventional media outlets, accountability and transparency are guaranteed.
Challenges Faced by Citizen-Run Media
Credibility is one of the main issues facing Citizen-Run Media:Empowering Voices for a New Era of Journalism. Making the distinction between trustworthy sources and skewed information is crucial in the age of fake news and disinformation. This is a major obstacle for both producers and users of citizen-run media.
Lack of Resources
The benefit is that traditional media outlets have trained journalists, editors, and fact-checkers at their disposal. Budget constraints frequently affect citizen-run media, which can have an impact on the reliability and quality of reporting.
Legal and Ethical Issues
For citizen journalists, navigating the ethical and legal facets of journalism may be difficult. Avoiding legal concerns requires a thorough understanding of copyright, defamation, and privacy laws.
The Future of Citizen-Run Media
Citizen-Run Media:Empowering Voices for a New Era of Journalism will continue to exist. This kind of media will keep expanding and changing as long as people have access to the internet and a desire to share their tales.
Collaboration with Traditional Media
We may anticipate increasing cooperation between established media and citizen-run sites. A more complete and accurate image of the world may result from this blending of citizen journalism with traditional media.
It’s conceivable that the platforms utilized for citizen-run media may change. Emerging technologies like augmented reality and virtual reality might offer new platforms for people to share their experiences and narratives.
To sum up, citizen-run media has fundamentally changed how we get news and information. It gives regular people the ability to become journalists, storytellers, and activists, enhancing the media landscape with a variety of viewpoints and voices.
- Is citizen-run media reliable?
Citizen-run media varies in reliability. It’s crucial to fact-check and verify information from multiple sources.
- Can anyone become a citizen journalist?
Yes, anyone with access to the internet and a desire to share information can become a citizen journalist.
- How can I support citizen-run media?
You can support citizen-run media by following credible sources, sharing their content, and promoting responsible journalism practices.
- What role does citizen-run media play in social movements?
Citizen-run media often serves as a catalyst for social movements, helping raise awareness and mobilize activists.
- What’s the future of mainstream media in the era of citizen-run media?
Mainstream media will likely adapt by incorporating citizen-run content, recognizing the value of diverse perspectives.
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누누티비 had earned its reputation as a beloved streaming platform with its ad-free experience and exceptional streaming speeds. However, as Noonootv’s services have been discontinued, it’s crucial to explore alternatives that maintain the same level of quality and convenience. By understanding the domain addresses of 누누티비 대체 사이트 and how their OTT streaming works, users can fully utilize these platforms’ features and enjoy a vast library of content. Whether you prefer watching on your computer or streaming directly to your TV using tools like Google Chromecast, these Noonootv alternative sites guarantee an enjoyable and hassle-free streaming experience. Embrace the world of ad-free entertainment at your fingertips through these alternatives.
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